Eugenius Kuncoro

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN MODERN ORGANIZATIONS

Posted: September 17th 2012
Fundamental Concept
Information Infrastructure :
The physical facilities, services, and management that support all organizational computing resources.
  • Computer hardware
  • General-purpose software
  • Networks and communications facilities
  • Databases
  • Information management personnel
Defines integration, operation, documentation, maintenance, and management of computing resources.
Defines how specific computing resources are arranged, operated, and managed.
High-level plan that details:
  • The organization’s information requirements
  • The way these requirements are being satisfied.
Incorporates information requirements, existing and planned information infrastructure and software applications.
Helps ensure that the organization’s IT meets the organization’s strategic business needs.
Information System (IS) : A system that collects, processes, stores, and analyze data and disseminates information for specific purposes. (Turban & Rainer, 2003).
Types of IS :
  • Transaction Processing System
    •Support/perform/automates routine business events.
    •Collect, store, process, and disseminate basic business transaction data.
    •Provide foundation data for many other systems.
    •May be complex and sophisticated.
    •Essential to business success today
  • Management Information System
    •Support routine decision making
    •Access, organize, summarize, and display information.
    •Emphasize routine reporting on known and anticipated issues.
    •Also, answer queries and forecast trends
  • Support Systems
    •support complex, non-routine managerial decision makers
    •Executive Information Systems – support higher-level managers
    •Group Support Systems – employ Groupware to support people working in groups
  • Intelligent Systems ->Include expert systems which provide the stored knowledge of experts to non-experts, and a new type of intelligent systems with machine- learning capabilities  that can learn from historical cases.
  • End- User Computing ->The use or development of information systems by the principal users of the systems’ outputs, such as analysts, managers, and other professionals.
  • Knowledge Management System ->Support the creating, gathering, organizing, integrating and disseminating of an organization knowledge.
  • Data Warehouse ->A data warehouse is a database designed to support DSS, ESS and other analytical and end-user activities.
  • Mobile Computing ->Information systems that support employee who are working with customers or business partners outside the physical boundaries of their companies; can be done over wire line or wireless networks.

How Information Systems Support Organizations…???

  • First, consider how organizations are structured:
    –Typically by functional departments
    –Frequently in a hierarchy
    –May be by project or in a matrix structure
  • The two most common classifications are:
    –Classification by breath of support
    –Classification by organizational level
  • Information Systems in an organization are developed to support the way the organization is structured.
  • Information systems consist of numerous applications
    –An application is system developed for a specific purpose
  • Applications and systems can support
    –Individuals / teams
    –Departments
    –Divisions/Units
    –Entire enterprise
  • Information systems can also be inter-organizational
    –Connect two or more organizations having a common interest or business need.
    –Important in facilitating e-commerce.
    IS support needed by people depends on their role in the organization.
    –Top managers make strategic decisions
    –Middle managers make tactical decisions
    –Line managers make operations decisions
    –Knowledge workers create and integrate knowledge
    –Clerical workers use and manipulate information
    Information resources encompass many things, including
    –Hardware (computers, servers, other devices)
    –Software (development tools, languages, applications)
    –Databases
    –Networks (local area, wide area, Internet, intranet)
    –Procedures
    –Physical buildings

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