Basic of Data Arrangement &Access Data hierarchy : Database contains files,file contains records, record contain fields, field contains charracters. Recall…8bits->1byte=>1 char Field (field size, field name, data type): a logical grouping of characters into a word, a small group of words, or a complete number. Record : a logical grouping of related fields. File : a logical grouping of related records. Database : a logical grouping of related files. Data Management Terminology Entity : a person, a place, thing, or event about which information is maintained. (Records) describe entities. Attribute : each characteristic or quality describing a particular entity.(Fields) describe attribute. Primary Key : field that uniquely identifies the record. Secondary Key : field doesn’t identify the records uniquely, but can be used to form logical groups of records. Locating Data in Database Centralized : All the related files are in one physical location Data consistency is improved and security is easier Recover from disaster … Read more
System Software : Instructions that manage the hardware resources Application Software : Instructions that perform specific user tasks Operating System : main system control program supervises the overall operation of the computer, allocate CPU time and main memory to programs running on the computer, provides an interface between the user and the hardware. Process management : manage programs running on processor multitasking or multiprogramming Multitasking or Multiprogramming – managing two or more tasks, or programs, running on the computer system at the same time Multithreading – type of multitasking; run two or more tasks from the same application simultaneously. Timesharing – many users share same CPU, each using a different input/output terminal. Multiprocessing – simultaneous processing with multiple CPUs. •Virtual memory – simulates more main memory than actually exists in the computer system •File management and security – managing the arrangement of, and access to, files held in secondary storage •Fault tolerance … Read more
The hardware components of an information system: CPU (central processing unit)/system unit Memory (primary and secondary storage) Input devices Output devices Two main components on the motherboard? Central Processing Unit (CPU) Also called a processor Carries out instructions that tell computer what to do Memory Temporary holding place for data and instructions What are common components inside the CPU? Processor Memory Adapter card Ports Drive bays Power supply What is the motherboard?Main circuit board in system unit. A microprocessor that executes instructions to perform processing tasks,component part are : Control unit,Arithmetic-Logic Unit, Registers, Primary Storage. The function of Control Unit are : Access program instructions,Decode instructions,Control flow of data throught system, and Data flows through path called buses. Arithmetic-Logic Unit : Perform computations on data, Perform comparisons on data. Registers : High speed storage areas, Hold data and instructions. Primary Storage is a temporary storage area that hold three things, in … Read more
Fundamental Concept Information Infrastructure : The physical facilities, services, and management that support all organizational computing resources. Computer hardware General-purpose software Networks and communications facilities Databases Information management personnel Defines integration, operation, documentation, maintenance, and management of computing resources. Defines how specific computing resources are arranged, operated, and managed. High-level plan that details: The organization’s information requirements The way these requirements are being satisfied. Incorporates information requirements, existing and planned information infrastructure and software applications. Helps ensure that the organization’s IT meets the organization’s strategic business needs. Information System (IS) : A system that collects, processes, stores, and analyze data and disseminates information for specific purposes. (Turban & Rainer, 2003). Types of IS : Transaction Processing System •Support/perform/automates routine business events. •Collect, store, process, and disseminate basic business transaction data. •Provide foundation data for many other systems. •May be complex and sophisticated. •Essential to business success today Management Information System … Read more
Caracterized by : Rapid Change Complexity Global Economy Hyper-competition Customer Focus Business Pressures on an Organization that force change : Market : Global Competitive Changing Workforce Powerful-Consumers Technology : Innovations Obsolesence Electronic Commerce Information Overload Society : Social Responbility Government Regulations Deregulations Shrinking Budgets Subsidies Ethics Definition Data : raw facts; collected, not organized. Information : data organized in a meaningful way. Knowledge : information organized to convey understanding, experiences, accumulated learning, or expertise. Computer Literacy : knowledge and understanding of computers and their uses System : Set of components that interact to achieve a common goal Computer : Electronic device operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory. (Shelly, Cashman, Vermaat, 2004) Information System (IS) : A system that collects, processes, stores, and analyze data and disseminates information for specific purposes. (Turban & Rainer, 2003) Computer Based Information System The use of hardware, software, data, people and procedures that work together … Read more
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